1. What was the main motivating factor for European maritime expansion in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries?
A. To increase economic opportunity
B. To seek out new lands for increasing populations
C. To spread Christian values
D. To conquer other empires or nations and take away local control
2. The root causes of the crisis that many states faced at the end of the second millennium B.C.E. were
A. natural disasters and external invasions.
B. external invasions and unstable governments.
C. migrations of foreigners and ecological fragility.
D. unstable governments and ecological fragility.
3. It's believed that the role of feasts in the Ice Age was to
A. strengthen group ties.
B. celebrate weddings.
C. celebrate the resolution of serious conflicts.
D. mark times when food was abundant.
4. _______ was a kingdom on the Atlantic coast of Spain that traded with the Greeks and Phoenicians.
5. A key technological development that began around 500 B.C.E. in sub-Saharan Africa was
A. yam cultivation.
B. monumental architecture.
D. iron smelting.
6. Which of the following archaeological evidence suggests that the Olmec were shamanistic?
A. Depictions of captives
B. Records of their mythology
C. Figurines of were-jaguars
D. Inscriptions describing religious observances
7. In forming his government, Asoka recruited what group to serve as bureaucrats?
A. Traditional Brahman elites
B. The military elite
C. The rising merchant class
D. The Buddhist clergy
8. The Chinese philosopher Xunzi wrote that if a person attempted to cure rheumatism by beating a drum and sacrificing a pig to the gods, then the
A. rheumatism would get better, but the person wouldn't be happy.
B. rheumatism wouldn't get better because proper therapy required playing a flute and sacrificing a chicken.
C. rheumatism would be cured.
D. drum would be worn out, and the pig would be gone.
9. Which of the following was a Chinese school of thought during the fourth century B.C.E. that denounced ethics in favor of obedience?
10. Which of the following is not one of the new thoughts of or about God that were formulated in the Axial Age?
A. Single God
B. Divine God
C. Many Gods
D. Involved God
11. How did Alfred the Great secure his modern reputation as a state-builder?
A. He forced people to live in militarized colonies.
B. He encouraged trade through tax incentives to merchants and businessmen.
C. He gave free land and tax breaks to peasants.
D. He was lavishly generous to monks.
12. In the Rome of Marcus Aurelius, a recurrent formula for saving the state from crisis involved
A. enlisting the aid of Persian allies.
B. dividing the government and delegating authority.
C. politicizing the military.
D. paying tributes to Germanic peoples in Europe.
13. In Mongol society, the expression “crane catching” referred to
A. successful leaders forcing submission from rivals.
B. a mysterious religious practice that's little understood today.
C. the success of Mongol merchants in establishing long-term contracts with buyers.
D. the popular pastime of hunting birds.
14. What was the main reason for the isolation of Japan?
A. Domination by Chinese culture
B. Difficult navigation in surrounding seas
C. Weak rulers
D. Lack of education
15. Which of the following practices did the Ottomans use to strengthen their state?
A. The practice of religions other than Islam was forbidden.
B. Christian children were enslaved and brought up as Muslims to become Janissaries.
C. Missionaries were sent to remote areas to generate wealth.
D. Gifts were given to those who converted to Islam.
16. The economic security of the Inca Empire was based on
A. extensive trade with the Aztec Empire.
B. a horizontal compilation of terra firma.
C. intensive maize farming.
D. environmental diversity.
17. All of the following were a result of the Crusades except
A. increased hostility in Europe between Christians and Jews.
B. establishment of a large Christian kingdom in the Middle East.
C. a proclamation, by Zangi, calling for Jihad against the infidels.
D. destruction of peaceful relations between Muslims and Christians.
18. Which of the following is an example of new economic divisions in the European peasantry that began to occur during the fifteenth century?
A. Peasants living east of the Elbe River became freer.
B. Peasants throughout Europe became poorer.
C. Peasants living in the Balkans became freer.
D. Peasants living west of the Elbe River became freer.
19. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the major reason for the high death rate among Native Americans from disease was
B. lack of immunities.