Which frequency measure below is NOT expressed as a ratio?

IHP 515 Module 3 Textbook Questions

Part A – Measures of Frequency Concepts

1. Which frequency measure below is NOT expressed as a ratio?

a. 5:1 c. 5/100

b. 5 d. 5 per 100,000


2. What is the difference between direct and indirect methods of adjustment?


3. When is a ratio expressed as #:# (e.g., 5:3)?


4. How do we report the calculation of a rate? Please include an explanation of the importance of time when reporting rates.


5. What information do the following types of rates provide an epidemiologist: (A) crude death rate; (B) general fertility rate; and (C) age-adjusted (standardized) rate?


6. What is the difference between incidence and prevalence? Provide an example of each using the same scenario.



Part B – Practicing Calculations of Frequency

A screenshot of a cell phone  Description automatically generated Table 1. Age-Specific Female Malignant Breast Cancer Incidence in the Combined Areas of San Francisco and the Metropolitan Areas of Detroit and Atlanta According to Selected Racial Groups, 2010–2012

Use the table above to answer the following questions.

7. Calculate the race and age-specific malignant Breast Cancer incidence rates for White and Black females, age groups 60-64, 65-69, and 70+. Please show your work needed to find each rate. Use 100,000 as the adjustment multiplier. Summarize your results in the table provided below.


  White Black
< 50 48.8 44.5
50-54 240.5 229.3
55-59 267.5 282.2
60-64 0 0
65-69 0 0
70+ 0 0




8. Create a bar chart using the incidence rates that you calculated in the previous question. Right Click on the template bar chart below, then click on “Chart Design” in the menu option and then on “Edit Data” OR on “Edit Data” in the menu to enter your data. What you will see depends on your version of Microsoft. Enter the data in the boxes and then close the data window and your graph will appear. If you need further guidance on how to edit the chart below, please review the following support page for Microsoft Word: https://support.office.com/en-us/article/insert-a-chart-from-an-excel-spreadsheet-into-word-0b4d40a5-3544-4dcd-b28f-ba82a9b9f1e1




9. Describe the effect of age and race on malignant breast cancer rates in females using the table and figure above.

White < 50 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70+ Black < 50 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70+

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