____ have overtaken _____ as the nation's largest minority. A) African Americans; Hispanics
B) African Americans; Asians
C) Asians; Hispanics
D) Hispanics; African Americans
E) Hispanics; Asians
2. A small group of individuals who are led in discussion by a professional consultant to gather opinions on, and responses to, candidates and issues is a A) tracking poll.
B) quota poll.
C) focus group.
D) random sample.
E) push poll.
3. The Financial Stability Oversight Board is an example of an agency created to provide _____, in this case for the TARP program. A) agenda building
B) policy adoption
C) policy formulation
D) policy implementation
E) policy evaluation
4. Domestic policy A) is limited to policies that affect major economic variables.
B) can be defined as all policies that affect housing.
C) can be defined as all the laws, government planning, and government actions that concern internal issues of national importance.
D) is limited to matters relating to law enforcement.
E) relates to the activities of the government in its relations with foreign countries.
5. _____ is a subset of national security policy concerning the U.S. armed forces. A) Technical assistance
B) Economic Aid
C) Defense policy
D) Foreign policy process
6. The U.S. imports about _____ of the oil it consumes. A) one tenth
B) one third
C) one half
D) three fifths
E) three quarters
7. Campaigns, which used to center on political parties, now center on A) candidates
B) specific issues.
C) entertainment value.
D) regional preferences.
E) international approval.
8. The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I) was agreed to in 1972 in order to A) stabilize the nuclear arms competition between the United States and the Soviet Union.
B) contain expansive Russian tendencies.
C) create the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
D) normalize relations in the Middle East.
E) limit Communist power within its existing borders.
9. By _____, if not before, the economy of China is expected to be larger than that of the United States. A) 2010
10. Recent estimates have put the number of illegal immigrants living in the U.S. at about A) 2 million.
B) 6 million.
C) 12 million.
D) 18 million.
E) 22 million.
11. Foreign and domestic policy designed to protect the nation's independence and political and economic integrity is A) foreign policy.
C) national security policy.
D) political realism.
12. Foreign policy is A) a nation's external goals and the techniques and strategies used to achieve them.
B) the formal agreements that are approved by the World Court.
C) interactions with other countries that are not related to economics.
D) the treaties that are ratified by the Senate.
E) the manner in which the armed forces are deployed.
13. In order to win in American politics today, candidates seek to capture A) only the votes of their party's supporters, since the votes of independents are largely irrelevant.
B) all of the votes of their party's supporters, as well as those of all of the independent voters and all of the voters from the other party.
C) a majority of their party's supporters, some of the independent voters and a few votes from supporters of the other party.
D) some of their party's supporters, most of the independent voters and a few votes from supporters of the other party.
E) all of the votes of their party's supporters, a majority of the independent voters and a few votes from supporters of the other party.
14. Policy implementation is A) concerned with the carrying out of policies by bureaucrats, the courts, police, and individual citizens.
B) the process of getting the media aware of the issue.
C) the discussion of proposals by governmental officials and the public.
D) concerned with a specific strategy for the proposal.
E) when studies are conducted to see what happens after a policy is implemented.
15. A policy of abstaining from an active role in international affairs or alliances, which characterized U.S. foreign policy toward Europe during most of the 1800s, is A) containment policy.
C) internationalist foreign policy.
D) isolationist foreign policy.
E) Washingtonian foreign policy.
16. Fiscal policy is A) using changes in the amount of money in circulation to affect overall business activity.
B) using changes in the amount of taxes and government expenditures to affect business activity.
C) using changes in interest rates to affect business activity.
D) under the control of the Federal Reserve System.
E) an area that is controlled exclusively by the President of the United States, according to Article II of the Constitution.
17. Soft money A) refers to contributions made directly to candidates for political office.
B) refers to money that will be spent on elections.
C) refers to campaign contributions unregulated by state or federal law, usually given to parties.
D) cannot be used for voter registration.
E) can be used only by candidates who sign a written pledge to obey the law.
18. In 2002, President George W. Bush enunciated a new foreign policy doctrine that held, in part, that A) the United States would go to war with any country that attacks it.
B) Islamists would not be allowed to take power in any additional nations.
C) America would leave the United Nations if that body did not support its military initiatives.
D) the United States would no longer participate in the World Trade Organization or in the World Bank.
E) the United States was prepared to wage preemptive war against perceived threats with or without allies.
19. Recessions A) have political advantages for a sitting president.
B) take place when the economy grows more than usual.
C) take place when the economy suffers a severe slowdown.
D) are no longer a problem in our modern economy.
E) are associated with periods of inflation.
20. The National Security Council (NSC) is A) an advisory body to the president on foreign policy matters.
B) under the functional control of the State Department.
C) a standing committee of the House and the Senate.
D) an advisory body to the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
E) a private research council that provides analysis of world events.
21. Diplomacy is A) a title given to senior members of the State Department
B) a philosophy that sees nations as normally willing to cooperate.
C) formal public meetings held by heads of government.
D) the settling of disputes and conflicts among nations by peaceful means.
E) the manner in which the armed forces are deployed.
22. The purpose of introducing the primary as a means of nominating candidates for office was to A) strengthen control by party leaders in the selection of the best-qualified candidates.
B) help the Republican Party win more elections.
C) limit financial contributions to minor party candidates.
D) open the nomination process to ordinary party members and to weaken the influence of party bosses.
E) ensure the winning candidate was electable.
23. In most states, you are not eligible to vote if you A) were not born in that state.
B) have not lived in the state for at least a year.
C) are not employed in the state.
D) do not register before the closing date.
E) do not have a state driver's license or identification card.
24. The State Department is A) directly responsible to Congress.
B) not involved in short-term foreign policy.
C) the executive agency that has primary authority over foreign affairs.
D) responsible for making foreign policy, not the president.
E) one of the largest cabinet departments.
25. The organizations that came to be known as “527s” A) have been ruled by the Supreme Court to be unprotected by the First Amendment.
B) have been outlawed under regulations issued by the Federal Election Commission.
C) are required to be created by the final section of the Campaign Finance Reform Act.
D) offer an alternative for interest groups to use money to influence the course of elections by encouraging voter registration and running issue ads to energize supporters.
E) are allowed to run issue ads but are precluded from mentioning particular candidates.
26. A _____ is a meeting of party members designed to select candidates and propose policies. A) direct primary
B) indirect primary
D) closed primary
E) open primary
27. Monetary policy may have limited power to end a recession because A) the amount of income tax collected by the government goes down in a recession.
B) if interest rates go high enough, people will stop borrowing.
C) monetary policy is less effective than fiscal policy generally.
D) people will change their behavior to avoid high tax rates.
E) people may be unwilling to borrow even if interest rates fall to zero.
28. In 2004, The U.S. Congress labeled the situation in Darfur, a province of Sudan, _____. A) a tragedy
C) a holocaust
29. A majority of the population of Iraq is A) Sunni Arab.
C) Shiite Arab.
30. The policymaking process includes all of the following EXCEPT A) agenda building.
B) policy formulation.
C) policy adjustment.
D) policy adoption.
E) policy evaluation.
31. In 2002, during the boom in the housing market, mortgage originators increasingly approved loan applications from individuals who had unstable incomes, low incomes, or no incomes at all because A) privacy protections enacted by Congress had made it nearly impossible to determine an individual's actual income.
B) their conviction that every American should own a home blinded them to the risks of lending to unqualified individuals.
C) they knew they could sell the risky mortgages to someone else.
D) Internet application forms made it possible for individuals to falsely inflate their incomes.
E) mortgage originators were forced by banks to meet impossibly high sales quotas.
32. The main driver of growth in health-care spending from 1975 to 2005 was A) the increase in malpractice suits against doctors, who passed on the cost of malpractice insurance to patients.
B) the inefficient bureaucratic structure of hospitals.
C) new medical technologies and services.
D) a scarcity of doctors which allowed the doctors who were practicing to charge more for care.
E) the dramatic increase in drug company advertisements which has created a “culture of sickness” in the United States.
33. The value of all final goods and services produced in a year is the A) balance of trade.
B) current account balance.
C) gross domestic product.
D) gross national product.
E) national product.
34. Until recently, women were generally considered to be appropriate candidates A) only for the Democratic Party.
B) when fundraising was not an issue in the campaign.
C) primarily when women's and family issues took center stage.
D) when the district was primarily composed of minorities.
E) only for lower-level offices, such as state legislator or school board member.
35. The number of members each state will have in the Electoral College A) cannot exceed fifty members.
B) cannot be changed without a Constitutional amendment.
C) changes every four years.
D) is determined by the number of senators and representatives a state has in Congress.
E) is identical so that each state plays an equal role in selecting the president.
36. The Department of Defense A) is larger than any other federal department.
B) was created during the administration of ***** *****.
C) was formed in 1978 through an executive order.
D) is run by the secretary of defense who is always an admiral or general.
E) has primary authority over foreign affairs.
37. In 1973, Congress passed the War Powers Resolution, which A) required congressional approval before the president could dismiss the Secretary of Defense.
B) limited the president's use of troops in military action without congressional approval.
C) extended the president's power over the military.
D) was necessary because of the increased threat of nuclear war.
E) allowed the president to declare an unlimited national emergency.
38. Today's dollar is worth about how much relative to a dollar of a century ago? A) a penny
B) a nickel
C) about the same value
D) twice as much
E) five times as much
39. _______ is a joint federal-state program designed to subsidize health care costs for the poor. A) Medicare
C) Social Security
E) Blue Cross
40. Voter turnout for Congressional elections is influenced most greatly by A) the state of the economy.
B) the type of ballot used.
C) the weather on the day of the vote.
D) how easy it is to pronounce the candidates' names.
E) whether there is a presidential election in the same year.
41. With the exception of race, ______ is the most important determinant of voting behavior in national elections. A) party affiliation
B) economic status
E) geographic region
42. Inflation refers to a sustained rise in the A) stock market.
B) general price level of goods and services.
C) money supply.
D) interest rates charged by banks.
E) salaries of members of government.
43. Political realism is a philosophy that A) sees nations as normally willing to cooperate and agree on moral standards for conduct.
B) mandates noninterference with the internal policies of sovereign nations.
C) supports steps to establish a single world government.
D) sees each nation as acting principally in its own interest.
E) contends that spreading Christianity ought to be a major goal of U.S. foreign policy.
44. A statewide election of delegates to a political party's national convention to help a party determine its presidential nominee is A) a general election.
B) a presidential primary.
C) a delegate selection caucus.
D) the Electoral College.
E) a preliminary explorative endeavor.
45. African Americans and most Asian American groups tend to A) vote for a third-party.
B) vote Democratic.
C) vote Republican.
D) fail to vote.
E) commit voter fraud.
46. In cases where no presidential candidate receives a majority of the electoral college vote, A) the current president serves two more years, at which time there is another general election.
B) the candidate who receives a plurality of the popular vote is elected.
C) the electors cast a second ballot to determine who will be elected.
D) Congress is required to call a second presidential election.
E) the election is decided in the U.S. House of Representatives.
47. The U.S. policy that stated that European nations must not establish new colonies in the western hemisphere or intervene in the affairs of the western hemisphere is known as the A) Bush Doctrine.
B) Marshall Doctrine.
C) Monroe Doctrine.
D) Powell Doctrine.
E) Truman Doctrine.
48. In the years following the adoption of the Constitution, many states placed legal restrictions on the right to vote because of the A) belief that voters should own property since many government decisions affect property..
B) belief in the South that if poor whites could vote, they might abolish slavery.
C) belief that woman's suffrage would injure the traditional family.
D) fear of an aristocratic form of government.
E) fear of the voting power of recent immigrants.
49. Sunnis and Shiites A) are two major ethnic groups in Iraq who speak different languages.
B) are two branches of the religion of Islam with somewhat different beliefs and traditions.
C) were opponents and supporters, respectively, of Saddam Hussein.
D) are two political parties in the Arab world.
E) are the names of two refugee camps that were destroyed by Israel.
50. All of the following nations are known to possess nuclear weapons capabilities except A) India
D) North Korea