Explain why hash collisions occur. That is, why must there always be two different plaintexts that have the same hash value?”
b. What property of a hash function means that these collisions are not a security problem. That is, why can an attacker not capitalize on collisions and change the underlying plaintext to another form whose value collides with the hash value of the original plaintext?”
4. Describe the concept of “separation of duties” and why it is or is not a good strategy to improve security? Provide an example of separation of duties in use within a modern organization’s enterprise?