Health Care Providers and Professionals Introduction

Chapter 4 Chapter 4 Health Care Providers and Professionals Introduction (1 of 2) • The U.S. health care industry is the largest and most powerful employer in the nation. – It employs more than 13% of the total labor force in the United States. – The growth of health care services is closely linked to the demand for health services professionals. Introduction (2 of 2) • The health care sector continues to grow due to: – Growth in population, mainly due to immigration – Aging of the population – Expansion of health insurance under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), leading to greater utilization of health care services Physicians (1 of 2) • All states require physicians to be licensed to practice. • The licensure requirements include: – Graduation from an accredited medical school – A doctor of medicine (MD) or doctor of osteopathic medicine (DO) Physicians (2 of 2) – Successful completion of a licensing examination governed by either the National Board of Medical Examiners or the National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners – Completion of a supervised internship/residency program Similarities and Differences Between MDs and DOs (1 of 2) • Both MDs and DOs use traditionally accepted methods of treatment, including drugs and surgery. – Osteopathic medicine, practiced by DOs, emphasizes the musculoskeletal system, such as correction of joint tissues. Similarities and Differences Between MDs and DOs (2 of 2) • MDs are trained in allopathic medicine, which views medical treatment as active intervention to produce a counteracting reaction in an attempt to neutralize the effects of disease. Generalists and Specialists (1 of 2) • Physicians trained in family medicine/general practice, general internal medicine, and general pediatrics are considered primary care physicians or generalists. Generalists and Specialists (2 of 2) • Specialists must seek certification in an area of medical specialization. This requires additional years of advanced residency training, followed by several years of practice in the specialty. Hospitalists • Specialty organized around site of care • Serve a significant role in Canada and the United Kingdom • Appeared in the United States after managed care began to dominate the health care system Primary Care vs. Specialists • Primary care: – First-contact care, gatekeepers in managed care – Longitudinal care, focus on patient as a whole – Training in ambulatory care settings for various conditions • Specialists: – Require referral from primary care physicians – Episodic care that focuses on a particular disease, process, or organ system – Training in hospitals using advanced technology Work Settings and Practice Patterns • Physicians practice in a variety of settings and arrangements. • Some work in hospitals as medical residents or staff physicians. • Others work in the public sector, in federal government agencies, public health clinics, etc. Imbalance and Maldistribution of Physicians • Looming shortages and the ACA • Geographic maldistribution • Specialty maldistribution Dentists • The major role of dentists is to diagnose and treat problems related to teeth, gums, and tissues of the mouth. • All dentists must be licensed to practice. • Some states require dentists to obtain a specialty license before practicing as a specialist in that state. Subspecialties of Dentistry • Orthodontics (straightening teeth) • Oral and maxillofacial surgery (operating on the mouth and jaws) • Pediatric dentistry (dental care for children) • Periodontics (treating gums) • Prosthodontics (making artificial teeth or dentures) • Endodontics (root canal therapy) • Public health dentistry (community dental health) • Oral pathology (diseases of the mouth) Pharmacists • The role of pharmacists has expanded from the preparation and dispensing of prescriptions to include: – Drug product education – Serving as experts on specific drugs, drug interactions, and generic drug substitution Subspecialties in Pharmacy • Pharmacotherapists: Specialize in drug therapy and work closely with physicians • Nutrition-support pharmacists: Determine and prepare drugs needed for nutritional therapy • Radiopharmacists or nuclear pharmacists: Produce radioactive drugs used for patient diagnosis and therapy Other Doctoral-Level Health Professionals (1 of 2) • Optometrists: Provide vision care, such as examination, diagnosis, and correction of vision problems • Psychologists: Provide patients with mental health care Other Doctoral-Level Health Professionals (2 of 2) • Podiatrists: – Treat diseases or deformities of the feet, including surgical operations – Provide medications and corrective devices – Perform physiotherapy • Chiropractors: – Perform chiropractic manipulation – Perform physiotherapy – Offer dietary counseling Nurses (1 of 2) • Largest group of health care professionals. • Nurses are the major caregivers of sick and injured patients, addressing patients’ physical, mental, and emotional needs. • All states require nurses to be licensed to practice. Nurses (2 of 2) • Nurses work in a variety of settings: – – – – – – Hospitals Nursing homes Private practice Ambulatory care centers Community Migrant health centers Shortage of Nurses • Demand for nurses has increased due to: – Increased patient-to-nurse staffing ratios needed to treat much sicker patients who require more intensive care – Growth in new opportunities for nursing employment in alternative settings and roles, such as case management, utilization review, quality assurance, and prevention counseling Advanced-Practice Nurses (APNs) • Four areas of specialization for APNs: – – – – Clinical nurse specialist (CNS) Certified registered nurse anesthetist (CRNA) Nurse practitioner (NP) Certified nurse-midwife (CNM) Nonphysician Practitioners (NPPs) • NPPs receive less advanced training than physicians but more training than registered nurses (RNs). • They do not: – Engage in the entire range of primary care – Deal with cases requiring the expertise of a physician Value of NPP Services (1 of 2) • Studies have: – Confirmed the efficacy of NPPs as health care providers – Demonstrated that NPPs can provide both highquality and cost-effective medical care • NPPs: – Show greater personal interest in patients – Cost less Value of NPP Services (2 of 2) • Issues that need to be resolved before NPPs can be used to their full potential are: – Legal restrictions on practice – Reimbursement policies – Relationships with physicians Allied Health Professionals (1 of 2) • Technicians and assistants – Receive less than 2 years of postsecondary education and are trained to perform procedures – Require supervision from therapists or technologists – Ensure that care plan evaluation occurs as part of treatment Allied Health Professionals (2 of 2) • Technologists and therapists learn how to: – Evaluate patients – Diagnose problems – Develop treatment plans • Education for the technologist/therapist includes skill development in teaching procedural skills to technicians. Public Health Professionals • Focus on the community as a whole rather than treating the individual: – Examples: Access to health care, infectious disease control, environmental health issues, and violence and injury issues • Five core disciplines: – Biostatistics, epidemiology, health services administration, health education/behavioral science, and environmental health Community Health Workers • Varying roles that include both socially oriented tasks of natural helpers and the clinical tasks of physician extenders • Most effective when: – Strongly embedded – Have clear supervision and clearly defined roles – Rigorous training and system of advancement for education Health Service Administrators (1 of 2) • Employed at the top, middle, and entry levels of various types of organizations that deliver health services • Responsible for the operational, clinical, and financial outcomes of the entire organization Health Service Administrators (2 of 2) • Are taught at the bachelor’s and master’s levels in a variety of settings • Several different degree programs • Constitute the largest portion of the health care labor force Patient-Centered Care • Patient-centered care: Care that is respectful and responsive to individual patient preferences, needs, and values. – Patient values guide all clinical decisions • Population health: Health outcomes of a group of individuals. – Result of multiple determinants
Purchase answer to see full attachment

Looking for a similar assignment? Get help from our qualified experts!

"Our Prices Start at $9.99. As Our First Client, Use Coupon Code GET15 to claim 15% Discount This Month!!":

Order a Similar Paper Order a Different Paper