write one long paragraph each for each readings response/ feedback
there are 2 readings.
1. What are the uses and limitations of Bloom’s Taxonomy?
Bloom’s Taxonomy’s are used as a means for teachers, schools, and/or districts to classify and evaluate instructional goals in order to create educational objectives. Once created, said educational objectives should progress from lower level cognitive skills, to higher order cognitive skills; therefore, “lower level skills within a domain are generally considered prerequisite to higher levels.” building upon the lower level prerequisite knowledge.”(Flinders, The Curriculum Studies Reader, 2013, p. 102)
A limitation of Bloom’s Taxonomy is that the desired, theoretical progression through the cognitive skills might not necessarily occur if a teacher, school, and/or district repeatedly target lower level cognitive skills.
What is an instructional goal? What is an objective?
Depending upon whom is being asked, the terms “instructional goals” and “instructional objectives” are often used indiscriminately of each other. Within these situations, both terms simply refer to the “aims, and intents, etc” of the instruction. (Flinders, The Curriculum Studies Reader, 2013, p.95)
With other people, and in other settings, a “‘goal’ describes a broader descriptions of intent”; whilst an “‘objective’ denotes a more specific spelling out of the goal”.(Flinders, The Curriculum Studies Reader, 2013, p. 95) The two definitions call to mind the following analogy: The instructional goal is an entire tree. While the objective, is one branch of said tree. In this way, one better understands the difference, yet the intrinsic relationship between the two terms remains apparent.
How do goals and objectives drive instruction?
Goals should function like a large tree, as in the aforementioned analogy. A goal is an overarching big picture of what is to be learned. The objective used to accomplish the learning, should not be overarching. Objectives should be: A. Clear and concise, B. Include a measurable learner behavior, and C. Include a verb delineating how said learner behavior will be accomplished.
A well written objective should never include words such as: know, review, learn, will do. All of those verbs are neither measurable, nor clear. Making them less than ideal to be used as an educational objective.
How does/should a teacher determine goals and objectives?
When determining goals/objectives, a teacher should consider many factors. One should evaluate which cognitive level of Bloom’s Taxonomy is required to complete the objective. Are there any covert skills that need to be taught before the goal? One should also consider the most suitable verb choice to achieve the goal.
How do politics (at the local, state, national and international level) contribute to the setting of classroom goals and objectives?
Internationally, the United States does not fare well in math, science, or reading in comparison with other developed nations. In fact, the United States continues to lose ground in those three areas yearly, according to Linda Darling-Hammond’s youtube video, “Becoming Internationally Competitive.”
Historically, states acted independently in creating the academic standards to be taught. There were a myriad of standards, some good, some bad, and zero, if any uniformity. In the same video, Darling-Hammond mentioned that in “some states the standards were sort of an inch deep and a mile-wide,” speaking to the very shallow nature of the standards. The standards expected to be covered from K-12 were often one hundred pages long. In comparison, other nations have standards that are 10 pages long from K-12. Again, speaking to the shallowness and exorbitant amount of material covered in the U.S.
Historically, at the local level, school districts, independently, decided how each standard would be covered, which books were read and at what grade level, etc.
In response to all of these issues, the Common Core State Standards, CCSS, have been designed and implemented by the majority of states. In theory, the CCSS are supposed to make expectations uniform, encourage in depth/critical thinking, and produce students that can compete internationally in all areas.
Flinders, D.J., Thornton, S.J., (Ed). (2013). The Curriculum Studies Reader (4th Edition). New York, NY: Routledge.
2.In the educational field of teaching and learning, Bloom;s taxonomy has been a ladder that comprises of multi tiered scale which is used to show the level of educator's expertise in order to achieve the expected student measureable outcome. It was developed by collaborative efforts of Benjamin, Max Engle Hart, Edward Furst, Walter Hill and David Krathwohl. Based on Bloom's taxonomy, human thinking skills are grouped into six stages of skills and abilities. These are knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation that ranges from simple to complex and then concrete abstract.(Armstrong, 2001).
Uses of Bloom Taxonomy
- Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives for higher order thinking skills is one of the most popular frameworks for writing learning objectives.(Bloom et al, 1994)
- It serves as appropriate tool for all grade level students in the school by providing opportunity for the teacher to move students from prior knowledge to content mastery.
- It help teachers to challenge students with higher order questioning which is one of the ways to stimulate learning and enhance brain development irrespective of the age levels of the learner.
- It is used to illustrate the extent to which any teacher want their students to understand and use concepts, demonstrate particular skills, values, attitude and interests (Blooms et al, 1994)
- It help teachers to organize lesson objectives into measurable goals by using any of its three broad categories – knowledge skills and affective.
- It guide teachers in identifying the type of classroom assessment techniques that will be most effective for measuring their lesson objective goals. For example, use of games with special education students help them to be continuously involved in assessment as they try to solve puzzle within the game.
- It is used to design a wide range of question that ranges from low level thinking questions to highest level questions.
Limitations of Bloom's Taxonomy:
There is need for school to be built in the cloud where students can explore learning based on their natural thinking and also learn from one another (Sugata, 2007). But, rather students response to knowledge acquisition is usually determined by the trend in which they read and think based on the types of questions they are exposed to by their teacher. For example, students will respond and apply skills acquired from any subject based on the fact that they are presented with an overabundance of knowledge level questions throughout the lesson presentation.
What is an Instructional Goal?
This is a statement that explains what every student exposed to the lesson presentation should be able to do after acquiring knowledge of a distinct unit of instruction. It can also be defined as solution to an instructional need of the student.
What is an objective?
It is a goal that individual's effort or actions are expected to attain or accomplish within a certain period of time. The purpose of learning objective in the classroom is to inform students of the standards and expectations of the course, drive curriculum planning, provide information for the development of assessments by identifying the types of evidence that students need to demonstrate understanding that will serve as biding contract between the teacher and students when setting up basis for their accountability.
How do Goals and Objectives drive Instruction?
Instructional goal is the general statement about the intention of instruction and while instructional objectives explains in more specific way about how and to what extent the instruction will affect the learner. Both instructional goals and objectives focus on what the learner will do and know upon completing any instructional task. Both goals and objectives faculatate overall course development by encouraging goal directed planning and lesson instructions as they help the teacher to select appropriate materials, strategies, and evaluation. Also, both help to organize students learning of any skill to be driven from inside where the teacher allow students to create and apply natural creativity when solving any problem. By so doing, it helps to drive instruction for both teacher and students as they focus on learning in such a way that it can provide effective, efficient and engaging instruction. Since they are the pivot that direct lesson presentation and evalutation.
How Teacher dtermine Goals and Objectives?
The aim of every teacher is to provide a conductive atmosphere, strategies and motivation that will enhance learning, retention, and application of knowledge within their subject area. Based on this, it is expected of every teacher to be in constant collaboration with their colleagues at both at their school sites or in blogs, webinars, attend professional development workshops where they can gain information on updated skills, methodology and resources. For example, use of activities like games in teaching helps to create fun in the classroom as it engages students into continuous learning and assessment during the process of trying to solve the task expected of them (Gee, 2010)
Place of Politics in Setting Classroom Goals and Objectives
Politics plays a vital role in setting classroom goals and objectives at the local, state, national and international levels. At the international level, politics has created room for comparison in students performance and in determining the placement of countries based on academic performance of their students in common assessment test that involves critical, analytical and problem solving skills. At the Federal level, it has helped in organizing and funding new assessments that is tied to the common core standards. It has assisted in reauthorizing the elementary and secondary education act known as “No Child Left Behind”. By so doing, the federal education board took the responsibility to design an assessment and accountability approach within United state that is more internationally comparable. Within the state level, politics have made 40 states to organize themselves create common core state standards with common objectives and goals for Language Arts, reading and Math within K – 12 grade levels. Also, it allows states to be involved in curriculum and assessment work that will allow students to be engaged in higher order thinking and performance skills. Then, at the local level, the county office of education collaborate with district offices to ensure that teachers at various schools sites are implementing the expected curriculum, using expected teaching strategies and resources to enhance learning within their classroom.
Armstrong, B. (2001). Bloom's Taxonomy. . Retrieved February 2, 2016, from https://cft.Vanderbilt.edu/guides-sub-pages/blooms-taxonomy/
Effective Goal setting for students. (n.d) Retrieved January 27, 2016, from https://teaching.monster.com/benefits/articles/9440-effective-goal-setting-for-students
EPD – instructor Resources – Goals Learning Objectives. (july 31, 2014). Retrieved January 28,2016, from https://kb.wisc.edu/page.php?id=42419
Hammond, L. D. (2010)..Becoming Internationally competitive. Retrieved February 11, 2016 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AQNUqVy.JofE
How Do you Define Intructional Goals? (n.d). Retrieved Febraury 4, 2016, from https://pt3.nau.edu/toolbox/how-goals.htm
Kamii, C (1989). Double Column Addition. Retireved February 11, 2016 from https;//www.youtube.com/watch?v=MNaAeGcZFWI
Marzano, R.J. (n.d). Retrieved January 27, 2016 from https://www.marzanoresearch.com/resources/tips/dtigo-tips-archive
Pee, J.P. (2010). Grading with Games. Retrieved February 10, 2016, fromhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ju3pwCD-eyo
Sugata, M. (2007) . TED Talk, Retrieved February11,2016,fromhttps://www.ted.com/talks/sugata-mitra-shows-how-kids-teach-themselves.html
- Posted: 4 years ago
- Due: 27/02/2016
- Budget: $5